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Effort physiology

We regularly receive questions about nutrition and sports nutrition.
Questions such as: Which sports nutrition should I take now when? How do I deal with sports nutrition? What should I drink?

Our vision is that to understand properly when you take out your information about which energy sources your body works. When do you use which energy source and how long can you keep this.

Energy systems
Our body mainly takes its energy from four components: phosphate (fuel) carbohydrates (fuel) fats (fuel and building material) and proteins (Poster a building material, but if the carbohydrates have been consumed, as well as fuel).

Depending on the demand for energy and availability, the body chooses the right file part to 'burn'. For sustainable sports, it is mainly made of it Oxygen energy system (Aerobe energy system) and therefore the Combustion of carbohydrates and fats. With competitive sports, it often has to be accelerated or pressed. In this case, the phosphate system is very briefly addressed and then the combustion of single carbohydrates in the Oxygen arm energy system (Anaerobic energy system). The disadvantage of this is that in this system, how H + ions are released that ensure the acidification in the muscles.

In addition to the above-mentioned energy standards, our body also needs vitamins, minerals and sufficient water to process the nutrients that are in food properly into energy. The amount of energy that provides a basic component to our body is different.

For example, 1 gram yields:

  • 1 gr carbohydrates 4.1 kcal energy
  • 1 gr fat 9.3 KCAL Energy
  • 1 gram protein 4.0 kcal energy

To burn this energy is there oxygen Need carbohydrates per liter of oxygen Most energy yields (5 kcal. For comparison: fats: 4.7 kcal and proteins 4.5 kcal).

Disadvantage of carbohydrates is that it is limited in stock in our body. We have carbohydrates in our body for a maximum of 1.5 hours. Depending on the demand for energy and availability, the body chooses to 'burn' fats and / or carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are stored in the form of Glycogen and blood glucose Easy available and deliver a lot of energy. Fats supply significantly less energy and it costs the body more effort to burn it. The stock of subcutaneous fat tissue is countlessly larger in the most scanned cyclists than the stock of carbohydrates.

Example: It is calculated that with an average efficiency and aerodynamics it takes about 21 kcal per minute to cycle to 40 km / h. The body can store around 2000 to 3000 kcal to carbohydrates, so that means in this case that there is approximately fuel for just 90 minutes. A cyclist of 70 kg with average posture has been stored about 125,000 kcal as fat. That means that the body is theoretically on fat as fuel 110 hours or 4.5 days can cycle on this intensity.

In the formula below you see that more than 4x so much oxygen (O2) is needed in fat burning (23 o2) than in the combustion of carbohydrates (6 o2)

Carbohydrates combustion: glucose + 6 O2 + 36 PI + 36 ADP -> 6 CO2 + 42 H2O + 36 ATP

Fat Burning: C16H32O2 (= fatty acid; palmitate) + 23 O2 + 129 (ADP + PI) -> 129 ADP + 16 CO2 + 145 H2O

Do you know: In the fat burning process, much more water (H2O) is also released than when combustion of carbohydrates (145h2o to 42h2o) This also explains why you lose much more moisture at low intensity.

Because endurance athletes consume many carbohydrates, they must eat carbohydrate-rich. The recommended nutrition percentages for endurance athletes is: 60% carbohydrates, 15% proteins and 25% fats. There is often too much fat and too few carbohydrates eaten by athletes. Also, a vitamin B, iron and magnesium deficiency can also be created because they are involved in energy supply.

Watch out for a protein deficiency because it is at the expense of the muscle mass. Proteins are the building blocks of the muscles. However, the protein share in the total energy value of the meal may not be too large. The number of calories that you burn per day depends on your activities, weight, age and gender.

Tip: Do you want thorough advice on the composition of your meals? Then contact a specialized sporting capacity (e).

The total calorry burning per day consists of the resting metabolism (or basal metabolic rate) plus the energy required for all your activities. With an average man / woman this is 2500/2000 kcal per day. Cycling is a typical expensive sport, because energy has to be supplied in a relatively constant level in a longer period of time. You are in particular in particular the aerobic energy system (the incineration where oxygen is required)

The basis for the energy supply is the burning of fats at a low heartbeat. This combustion costs 'more' time and starts difficulty, but ultimately delivers more energy. However, if the sport takes a little longer or becomes more intensive (sprinting, harder bikes), the body will mainly use carbohydrates. So do you want to train your fat burning than you will have to cycle long pieces at low intensity.

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